Technological Roadmap


The Technological Roadmap guides the development of key technologies under the *SAT-1 Initiative. It’s our general, long-term strategy of innovation and achievement.



Phase 01: Basic Steps


  • Launch of our R&D and exploration program with Low Earth Orbit missions.
  • Develop a full range of critical satellite subsystems, software, data management structures and an operations facility.
  • Design, build and launch a simple 1U CubeSat.
  • Gain experience in space communications, remote sensing and data analysis.


Phase 02: Thinking Bigger


  • Complete in-house development of small satellite platforms (up to 50 kg).
  • Lunar orbiter with probe or rover.
  • Precise deep space navigation systems.
  • Full range of propulsion systems.
  • Radioisotope thermoelectric generators and other advanced power generation units.
  • Blockchain-based data storage and management.
  • First basic AI tests for deep space autonomous operations.


Phase 03: Doing Bigger


  • Interplanetary probe (Mars, Jupiter or Venus).
  • Advanced AI for highly autonomous deep space operations.
  • Wireless power transmission in space.
  • Experimental power sources.
  • Comprehensive life support systems.
  • Prefabricated lunar habitats.
  • Time dilation mapping in the immediate planetary neighborhood.


Satellite Launch Roadmap


The Satellite Roadmap will see tests of new technologies and generate vital practical experience through satellite projects corresponding to Phase objectives.



Launch of Efir (Ефир, Bulgarian for “aether”) our first 1U CubeSat. Its primary mission will be to demonstrate the functionality of the first subsystems developed by our team. Most importantly, Efir will test communications, navigation and attitude control subsystems that will be critical for future missions, and will collect imagery.

Efir is planned for launch as early as Q2 2019 on a Low Earth Orbit at an altitude of 400 kilometers and an inclination of 51.6 degrees. Efir will complete all objectives of Phase 01, although additional CubeSats may be launched.


If Phase 01 is completed with Efir, Q4 2020 will be the earliest projected launch of a Lunar probe. An earlier probe will involve a larger element of risk, as thrusters, navigation systems and attitude control will be making their maiden flight on the lunar orbiter. The smallest possible configuration is a 6U CubeSat supplied with a miniature rover and an array of measurement instruments.

The Lunar mission will have a diverse range of objectives. First and foremost, it will demonstrate an ability to send probes outside Earth orbit, where a completely different set of challenges awaits. Long distances result in measurable delays in communication and poorer accessibility, meaning that the probe must be able to make basic decisions on its own. The lack of a magnetosphere not only exposes the probe to extreme radiation, but also makes attitude determination and navigation more difficult.

The Lunar probe will take measurements of the Moon’s weak magnetic field patches and examine their influence on the propagation of moondust. The data will allow us to provide better understanding of physical processes in the Moon’s crust, potentially paving the way for further study in the viability of Lunar mining activities and setting up human habitats. The orbiter will then release a landing module, bringing a miniature rover to the surface for regolith analysis.

Beyond 2023

Successful completion of Phase 02 will open the doors to true deep space exploration. With the necessary propulsion, navigation, ADC, energy and communication subsystem technology, the Initiative will take a look at our closest planets – Mars, Venus and potentially Jupiter.

The deep space probe will be used to master cutting-edge innovation that will propel human exploration of the Solar System. Among the technologies envisioned for this project are advanced artificial intelligence, harnessing ambient energy or transferring energy over large distances, and an ultra-precise time dilation measurement instrument designed to map time dilation in Earth’s neighborhood. The Initiative will also pursue prefabricated structures for Lunar habitats and life support systems for Low Earth Orbit and the Moon.

Additionally, we will begin work on the means to transfer basic terrestrial services like construction, food and healthcare into space. This will include designing prefabricated, modular and 3D-printed Lunar habitats, greenhouses and food storage units, low-gravity construction equipment, radiation shielding, environmental and thermal control systems, remote medical examinations, and low or microgravity medical treatment procedures and instruments.


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